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Member Research & Reports

Member Research & Reports

Georgia State: Users’ Modifications to Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) – Interviews with ENDS Enthusiasts

A paper co-authored by tobacco researchers in the Georgia State University School of Public Health identified consumers’ common modification behaviors to ENDS, or battery-powered devices used to smoke or vape. ENDS include electronic cigarettes and vaping devices that often contain nicotine, an addictive chemical, in their solution.  Published in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), the researchers conducted audio-recorded, in-depth one-on-one interviews with 13 adult ENDS users in the metropolitan Atlanta area who self-reported extensive modification experience to the devices’ coils, batteries, and e-liquids. The participants indicated that users modified devices to produce large clouds, change levels of nicotine delivery, alter tastes of e-liquids, and experience different throat hits.

The researchers found that among this group of enthusiasts, users’ modifications to ENDS focus on operational characteristics of the devices and e-liquids. They study indicated that because the industry has constantly updated and developed new products to satisfy consumers’ needs, a smaller number of users seem to be altering their coils, batteries, and other operational features of ENDS in recent years.  Yet, those who continue to modify their devices tend to be hobbyists, who perform more risky modifications, and users continue to misuse or abuse e-liquids.  The researchers included that The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulatory actions may unintentionally increase the likelihood that users will once again make more extensive modifications to their products,

Read the study.

The authors of study are Dr. Yachao Li, Mr. Robert T. Fairman, Ms. Victoria Churchill, Dr. David Ashley, and Dr. Lucy Popova.

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