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Member Research & Reports

Member Research & Reports

Loma Linda Researchers Find Gender Differences in Respiratory Health of School Children

In a recent paper published in the January 2016 issue of the Journal of Environmental Health, researchers from the Loma Linda University found in areas of overall poor air quality, male children were at greater risk of elevated levels of FeNO, indicative of lung inflammation, while females were at an elevated risk for reduced lung capacity, measured by peak expiratory flow (PEF).

The findings are part of the Environmental Railyard Research Impacting Community Health (ENRRICH) Project, a collaborative effort involving several entities in the Inland Empire region, including a local community based organization, The Center For Community Action and Environmental Justice (CCAEJ). The project funded by the Southern California Air Quality Management District, addressed community concerns about the health consequences of living close to the San Bernardino railyard. The final ENRRICH Project report was submitted in May 2014 and is available at

“With the knowledge we have gained through the ENRRICH study and the significant health challenges identified, especially for the children, the foundation has been set for moving forward with critically needed interventions.” Said Dr. Rhonda Spencer-Hwang, DrPH, MPH and Assistant Professor in the Center for Community Resilience at LLUSPH. “These interventions should foster the development of a more resilient community where children and their families can live and thrive.”

Article: Rhonda Spencer-Hwang, Sam Soret, Mark Ghamsary, Nico Rizzo, Marti Baum, David Juma, Susanne Montgomery. 2016. “Gender Differences in Respiratory Health of School Children Exposed to Rail Yard-Generated Air Pollution: The ENRRICH Study.”  Journal of Environmental Health 78(6): 8-16.

The article can be found online at