India has a large population of HIV-positive individuals, including men who have sex with men (MSM) and the incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers is high. In developed countries, HIV-positive MSM exhibit the highest prevalence of anal HPV infection and incidence of anal cancer. Little is known about anal HPV infection in HIV-positive Indian MSM. The study evaluated 300 HIV-positive MSM from two cities in India. Men were tested for anal HPV infection using L1-HPV DNA PCR with probes specific for 29 types and a mixture of 10 additional types. CD4+ level and plasma HIV viral load were measured. Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire including a sexual history.
The prevalence of anal HPV was 95 percent (95 percent CI 91-97 percent). The three most common types were HPV 35 (20 percent), HPV 16 (13 percent) and HPV 6/11 (13 percent). History of taking antiretroviral medications decreased risk of anal HPV 16 infection (RR: 0.6 (0.4-1.0). Having an increased number of vaginal sex partners lowered risk of any anal HPV infection. Ever having receptive sex increased risk of any anal HPV (RR: 1.2 (1.1-1.4) and anal HPV 16 (RR: 6.5 1.8-107). The study showed almost all Indian HIV-positive MSM had anal HPV infection. The prevalence of HPV 16 was lower and the prevalence of other oncogenic HPV types was higher than in similar populations in North America and Europe. Vaccine based prevention strategies for HPV infection in India should consider potential differences in HPV type distribution among HIV-infected MSM when designing interventions. For full article: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26379067