Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have discovered a new bat SARS-like virus that can jump directly from its bat hosts to humans without mutation. However, researchers point out that if the SARS-like virus did jump, it is still unclear whether it could spread from human to human.
The discovery, reported in the November 9 issue of Nature Medicine, is notable not only because there is no treatment for this newly discovered virus, but also because it highlights an ongoing debate over the government’s decision to suspend all gain-of-function experiments on a variety of select agents earlier this year. The move has put a substantial standstill on the development of vaccines or treatments for these pathogens should there be an outbreak.
“Studies have predicted the existence of nearly 5,000 coronaviruses in bat populations, and some of these have the potential to emerge as human pathogens,” said senior author Dr. Ralph Baric, professor of epidemiology at the Gillings School of Global Public Health and world-renowned expert in coronaviruses. “So this is not a situation of ‘whether’ there will be an outbreak of one of these coronaviruses, but rather ‘when’ – and how prepared we’ll be to address it.”
SARS first jumped from animals to humans in 2002-2003 and caused a worldwide outbreak, resulting in 8,000 cases, including one case in Chapel Hill, and nearly 800 deaths. SARS-CoV presents with symptoms similar to those of flu, but then can accelerate, compromise breathing and bring on a deadly form of pneumonia. The 2002-2003 outbreak was controlled through public health interventions, and the original virus was thought to have been extinct since 2004.
Baric and his team demonstrated that the newly-identified SARS-like virus, labeled SHC014-CoV and found in Chinese horseshoe bats, can jump between bats and humans by showing that the virus can latch onto and use the same human and bat receptor for entry. The virus also replicates as well as SARS-CoV in primary human lung cells, the preferred target for infection.
“This virus is highly pathogenic, and treatments developed against the original SARS virus in 2002 and the ZMapp drugs used to fight Ebola fail to neutralize and control this particular virus,” said Baric. “Building resources, rather than limiting them, to examine both animal populations for new threats and develop therapeutics, is key for limiting future outbreaks.”
Dr. Vineet Menachery, postdoctoral fellow in epidemiology at the Gillings School, was first author of the study. Numerous other researchers from UNC’s Cystic Fibrosis Center and the departments of epidemiology, microbiology and immunology, and cell biology and physiology at the UNC public health and medical schools were co-authors, as were researchers from the National Center for Toxicological Research at the Food and Drug Administration in Jefferson, Ark; the Chinese Academy of Sciences, in Wuhan, China; the Bellinzona Institute of Microbiology in Zurich, Switzerland; and the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Department of Medicine at Harvard Medical School.