A University at Buffalo study published in The Journal of Urology reports that men with prostate cancer who had worse urinary, bowel and sexual function after surgery or radiotherapy than others experienced more emotional distress. Interestingly, the reverse was also true as experiencing more distress led to worse function. The likelihood of this reciprocal relationship highlights the importance of greater investment in psychosocial care to mitigate treatment side effects in prostate cancer survivors.
Patients with cancer frequently experience emotional distress, not only when they are diagnosed and during treatment, but also into long-term survivorship. Studies have shown that interventions to reduce the emotional burden of disease in patients with cancer can promote recovery and reduce associated costs. Most of the 2.8 million survivors of prostate cancer in the U.S. have been treated with definitive therapy, typically surgery and/or radiotherapy, and have a favorable prognosis.
[Photo: Dr. Heather Orom]
Men treated surgically often experience some degree of urinary incontinence, especially in the first year following treatment, and most experience erectile dysfunction even two years after surgery. While emotional distress decreases in most prostate cancer survivors, some have high emotional distress that does not decline over time to a level consistent with the general population.
“There is growing appreciation for the need to support cancer survivors’ emotional well-being during survivorship, and for prostate cancer patients a key concern is mitigating the influence of treatment side effects on quality of life, including psychological well-being,” explains Dr. Heather Orom, the study’s lead author and an associate professor of community health and health behavior in the University at Buffalo School of Public Health and Health Professions.
Dr. Orom and her colleagues investigated whether urinary, sexual and bowel dysfunction contributes to emotional distress during the first two years after treatment, and whether distress may in turn further decrease function. They assessed more than 1,100 men diagnosed with clinically localized prostate cancer who were treated with surgery (63 percent) or radiotherapy (37 percent). Urinary, sexual and bowel function was assessed using the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite and emotional distress was assessed using the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Distress Thermometer.
Patients were evaluated before treatment and six weeks thereafter, with follow-up at six, 12, 18 and 24 months. The investigators analyzed how function at one time point influenced distress at a subsequent time point and vice versa, taking into account differences in men’s pretreatment function and distress.
Results highlight the likelihood of a reciprocal relationship between treatment side effects and emotional distress. Because the researchers followed the men over time, they were able to establish strong evidence of a causal relationship between urinary, sexual, and bowel function after definitive treatment and emotional distress.
“These findings indicate that in addition to meeting an important need among some survivors, providing psychosocial support may help mitigate side effects,” Dr. Orom said. “It is not simply adequate to monitor patients with cancer for distress and physical quality of life issues. Intervention must be accessible.”